Cutting And Forming Operations(Press Working)

Sheet metal Cutting Operations:
1: Blanking:
Blanking is the operation of cutting a flat shape from sheet metal. The product punched out is called the “blank” and the required product of the operation the hole and the metal left behind is discarded as waste.
2: Punching or Piercing:
It is a cutting operation by which various shaped holes are made in sheet metal. Punching is similar to blanking except that in punching, the hole is the desired product. The material punched out from the hole being waste.
3: Notching:
This is cutting operation by which metal pieces are cut from the edge of the sheet , strip or blank.
4: Perforating:
This is a process by which multiple holes are very small and close together are cut in a flat sheet metal.
5: Trimming:
This operation consists of cutting unwanted excess of material from the periphery of a previously formed component.
6: Shaving:
The edge of a blanked part are generally rough, uneven and un square. Accurate dimensions of the part are obtained by removing a thin strip of metal along the edges.
7: Slitting:
It refers to the operation of making incomplete holes in a work piece.
8: Lancing:
This is a cutting operation in which a hole is partially cut and then one side is bent down to form a sort of tab. Since no metal is actually removed and there will be no scrap.
9: Nibbling:
The nibbling operation , which is used for only small quantities of components, is designed for cutting out flat parts from sheet metal. The flat parts from simple to complex contours. This operation is generally substituted for blanking. The part is usually moved and guided by hand as the continuously operating punch cutting away at the edge of the desired contour.

Forming Operations:

1: Bending:
In this operation; the material in the form of flat sheet or strip is uniformly strained around a linear axis which lies in the neutral plane and perpendicular it’s the length wise direction of the sheet or metal.
2: Drawing:
This is a process of forming a flat work piece into a hollow shape by means of a punch which cause the blank into a die cavity.
3: Squeezing:
Under the operation, the metal is caused to flow to all portions of a die cavity under the action of compressive forces.

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